Monday, April 4, 2011

DAIRY FARMING FOR SMALL FARMER


1. Why do Dairy Farming ?

1.1 Dairying is an important source of subsidiary income to small/marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. The manure from animals provides a good source of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gober gas from the dung is used as fuel for domestic purposes as also for running engines for drawing water from well. The surplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilised for feeding the animals. Almost all draught power for farm operations and transportation is supplied by bullocks. Since agriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibility of finding employment throughout the year for many persons through dairy farming. Thus, dairy also provides employment throughout the year. The main beneficiaries of dairy programmes are small/marginal farmers and landless  labourers. A farmer can earn a gross surplus of about Rs. 12,000 per year from a unit consisting of 2 milking buffaloes. The capital investment required for purchase of 2 buffaloes is Rs. 18,223/-. Even after paying a sum of Rs. 4294/- per annum towards repayment of the loan and interest the farmer can earn a net surplus of Rs. 6000 - 9000/- approximately per year. (For details see model scheme enclosed). Even more profits can be earned depending upon the breed of animal, managerial skills and marketing potential.
1.2 According to World Bank estimates about 75 per cent of India's 940 million people are in 5.87 million villages, cultivating over 145 million hectares of cropland. Average farm size is about 1.66 hectares. Among 70 million rural households, 42 per cent operate upto 2 hectares and 37 per cent are landless households. These landless and small farmers have in their possession 53 per cent of the animals and produce 51 per cent of the milk. Thus, small/marginal farmers and land less agricultural labourers play a very important role in milk production of the country. Dairy farming can also be taken up as a main occupation around big urban centres where the demand for milk is high.

2. Scope for Dairy Farming and its National Importance.
2.1 The total milk production in the country for the year 2001-02 was estimated at 84.6 million metric tonnes. At this production, the per capita availability was to be 226 grams per day against the minimum requirement of 250 grams per day as recommended by ICMR. Thus, there is a tremendous scope/potential for increasing the milk production. The population of breeding cows and buffaloes in milk over 3 years of age was 62.6 million and 42.4 million, respectively (1992 census)
2.2 Central and State Governments are giving considerable financial assistance for creating infrastructure facilities for milk production. The nineth plan outlay on Animal Husbandry and Dairying was Rs. 2345 crores.

3. Financial Assistance Available from Banks/NABARD for Dairy Farming.

3.1 NABARD is an apex institution for all matters relating to policy, planning and operation in the field of agricultural credit. It serves as an apex refinancing agency for the institutions providing investment and production credit. It promotes development through formulation and appraisal of projects through a well organised Technical Services Department at the Head Office and Technical Cells at each of the Regional Offices.

3.2 Loan from banks with refinance facility from NABARD is available for starting dairy farming. For obtaining bank loan, the farmers should apply to the nearest branch of a commercial or co-operative Bank in their area in the prescribed application form which is available in the branches of financing banks. The Technical Officer attached to or the Manager of the bank can help/give guidance to the farmers in preparing the project report to obtain bank loan.

3.3 For dairy schemes with very large outlays, detailed reports will have to be prepared. The items of finance would include capital asset items such as purchase of milch animals, construction of sheds, purchase of equipments etc. The feeding cost during the initial period of one/two months is capitalised and given as term loan. Facilities such as cost of land development, fencing, digging of well, commissioning of diesel engine/pumpset, electricity connections, essential servants' quarters, godown, transport vehicle, milk processing facilities etc. can be considered for loan. Cost of land is not considered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up a dairy farm, its cost can be treated as party's margin upto 10% of the total cost of project.

4. Scheme Formulation for bank loan.

4.1 A Scheme can be prepared by a beneficiary after consulting local technical persons of State animal husbandry department, DRDA, SLPP etc., dairy co-operative society/union/federation/commercial dairy farmers. If possible, the beneficiaries should also visit progressive dairy farmers and government/military/agricultural university dairy farm in the vicinity and discuss the profitability of dairy farming. A good practical training and experience in dairy farming will be highly desirable. The dairy co-operative societies established in the villages as a result of efforts by the Dairy Development Department of State Government and National Dairy Development Board would provide all supporting facilities particularly marketing of fluid milk. Nearness of dairy farm to such a society, veterinary aid centre, artificial insemination centre should be ensured. There is a good demand for milk, if the dairy farm is located near urban centre.

4.2 The scheme should include information on land, livestock markets, availability of water, feeds, fodders, veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type of assistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.

4.3 The scheme should also include information on the number of and types of animals to be purchased, their breeds, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out and shown in the Project report. A format developed for formulation of dairy development schemes is given as Annexure I.

5. Scrutiny of Schemes by banks.

The scheme so formulated should be submitted to the nearest branch of bank. The bank's officers can assist in preparation of the scheme for filling in the prescribed application form. The bank will then examine the scheme for its technical feasibility and economic viability.

(A) Technical Feasibility - this would briefly include -

1.                  Nearness of the selected area to veterinary, breeding and milk collection centre and the financing bank's branch.
2.                  Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock market. The distribution of important breeds of cattle and buffaloes
             are given in Annexure II. The reproductive and productive performance of cattle and buffalo breeds is given in AnnexureIII.

3.                  Availability of training facilities.
4.                  Availability of good grazing ground/lands.
5.                  Green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.
6.                  Availability of veterinary aid/breeding centres and milk marketing facilities near the scheme area.
 
(B) Economic Viability - this would briefly include -
 
1.                  Unit Cost - The average unit cost of dairy animals for some of the States is given in Annexure IV.
2.                  Input cost for feeds and fodders, veterinary aid, breeding of animals, insurance, labour and other overheads.
3.                  Output costs i.e. sale price of milk, manure, gunny bags, male/female calves, other miscellaneous items etc.
4.                  Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.
5.                  Cash flow analysis.
6.                  Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest).
 
Other documents such as loan application forms, security aspects, margin money requirements etc. are also examined. A field visit to the scheme area is undertaken for conducting a techno-economic feasibility study for appraisal of the scheme. Model economics for a two animal unit and mini dairy unit with ten buffaloes are given in Annexure V and VI.
 
6. Sanction of Bank Loan and its Disbursement.

After ensuring technical feasibility and economic viability, the scheme is sanctioned by the bank. The loan is disbursed in kind in 2 to 3 stages against creation of specific assets such as construction of sheds, purchase of equipments and machinery, purchase of animals and recurring cost on purchase of feeds/fodders for the initial period of one/two months. The end use of the fund is verified and constant follow-up is done by the bank.

7. Lending terms - General

7.1 Unit Cost

Each Regional Office (RO) of NABARD has constituted a State Level Unit Cost Committee under the Chairmanship of RO-in-charges and with the members from developmental agencies, commercial banks and cooperative banks to review the unit cost of various investments once in six months. The same is circulated among the banks for their guidance. These costs are only indicative in nature and banks are free to finance any amount depending upon the availability of assets.

7.2 Margin Money

NABARD had defined farmers into three different categories and where subsidy is not available the minimum down payment as shown below is collected from the beneficiaries.

Sr.No.
Category of Farmer
Level of predevelopment return to resources
Beneficiary's Contribution
(a)
Small Farmers
Upto Rs.11000
5%
(b)
Medium Farmers
Rs.11001 - Rs.19250
10%
(c)
Large Farmers
Above Rs. 19251
15%`

7.3 Interest Rate

As per the RBI guidelines the present rate of interest to the ultimate beneficiary financed by various agencies are as under :

No.
Loan Amount
CB's and RRB's
SLDB/SCB
(a)
Upto and inclusive of Rs.25000
12%
As determined by SCB/SLDB subject to minimum 12%
(b)
Over Rs. 25000 and upto Rs. 2 lakhs
13.5%
-do-
(c)
Over Rs. 2.0 lakhs
As determined by the banks
-do-
 
7.4 Security

Security will be as per NABARD/RBI guidelines issued from time to time.

7.5 Repayment Period of Loan

Repayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loans will be repaid in suitable monthly/quarterly instalments usually within a period of about 5 years. In case of commercial schemes it may be extended upto 6-7 years depending on cash flow analysis.

7.6 Insurance

The animals may be insured annually or on long term master policy, where ever it is applicable. The present rate of insurance premium for scheme and non scheme animals are 2.25% and 4.0% respectively.

8. Package of Common Management Practices Recommended for Dairy

Farmers
Modern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills should be used to obtain maximum economic benefits from dairy farming. Some of the major norms and recommended practices are as follows :

I. Housing:
1.                  Construct shed on dry, properly raised ground.
2.                  Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas.
3.                  The walls of the sheds should be 1.5 to 2 meters high.
4.                  The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.
5.                  The roof should be 3-4 metres high.
6.                  The cattle shed should be well ventilated.
7.                  The floor should be pucca/hard, even non-slippery impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to
             remain dry and clean.

8.                  Provide 0.25 metre broad, pucca drain at the rear of the standing space.
9.                  A standing space of 2 x 1.05 metre for each animal is needed.
10.              The manger space should be 1.05 metre with front height of 0.5 metre and depth of 0.25 metre.
11.              The corners in mangers, troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.
12.              Provide 5-10 sq. metre loaf space for each animal.
13.              Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
14.              In winter keep animals indoor during night and rain.
15.              Provide individual bedding daily.
16.              Maintain sanitary condition around shed.
17.              Control external parasites (ticks, flies etc.) by spraying the pens, sheds with Malathion or Copper sulphate solution.
18.              Drain urine into collection pits and then to the field through irrigation channels.
19.              Dispose of dung and urine properly. A gobar gas plant will be an ideal way. Where gobar gas plant is not constructed,
             convert the dung alongwith bedding material and other farm wastes into compost.

20.              Give adequate space for the animals. (The housing space requirement of crossbred cattle in various
             categories/age-groups is given in Annexure-VII).

 
II. Selection of Animal :
1.                  Immediately after release of the loan purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.
2.                  Select healthy, high yielding animals with the help of bank's technical officer, veterinary/animal husbandry officer of State
             government/ Zilla Parishad, etc.

3.                  Purchase freshly calved animals in their second/third lactation.
4.                  Before purchasing, ascertain actual milk yield by milking the animal three times consecutively.
5.                  Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear tagging or tattooing).
6.                  Vaccinate the newly purchased animal against disease.
7.                  Keep the newly purchased animal under observation for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the general
             herd.

8.                  Purchase a minimum economical unit of two milch animals.
9.                  Purchase the second animal/second batch after 5-6 months from the purchase of first animal.
10.              As buffaloes are seasonal calvers purchase them during July to February.
11.              As far as possible purchase the second animal when the first animal is in its late stage of lactation and is about to
            become dry, thereby maintaining continuity in milk production vis-a-vis income. This will ensure availability of adequate
             funds for maintaining the dry animals.

12.              Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd.
13.              Cull the old animals after 6-7 lactations.
 
III. Feeding of Milch Animals
1.                  Feed the animals with best feeds and fodders. (Feeding schedule is given in Anneuxre VIII).
2.                  Give adequate green fodder in the ration.
3.                  As far as possible, grow green fodder on your land wherever available.
4.                  Cut the fodder at the right stage of their growth.
5.                  Chaff roughage before feeding.
6.                  Crush the grains and concentrates.
7.                  The oil cakes should be flaky and crumbly.
8.                  Moisten the concentrate mixture before feeding.
9.                  Provide adequate vitamins and minerals. Provide salt licks besides addition of mineral mixture to the concentrate ration.
10.              Provide adequate and clean water.
11.              Give adequate exercise to the animals. Buffaloes should be taken for wallowing daily. In case this is not possible sprinkle
             sufficient water more particularly during summer months.

12.              To estimate the daily feed requirement remember that the animals consume about 2.5 to 3.0 percent of their body weight on dry
         matter basis.

 
IV. Milking of Animals
1.                  Milk the animals two to three times a day.
2.                  Milk at fixed times.
3.                  Milk in one sitting within eight minutes.
4.                  As far as possible, milking should be done by the same person regularly.
5.                  Milk the animal in a clean place.
6.                  Wash the udder and teat with antiseptic lotions/luke-warm water and dry before milking.
7.                  Milker should be free from any contagious diseases and should wash his hands with antiseptic lotion before each milking.
8.                  Milking should be done with full hands, quickly and completely followed by stripping.
9.                  Sick cows/buffaloes should be milked at the end to prevent spread of infection.
 
V. Protection against Diseases

1.                  Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour.
2.                  Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.
3.                  Protect the animals against common diseases.
4.                  In case of outbreak of contagious disease, immediately segregate the sick, in-contact and the healthy animals and take necessary
                disease control measures. (Vaccination schedule is given in Annexure IX).

5.                  Conduct periodic tests for Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Johne's disease, Mastitis etc.
6.                  Deworm the animals regularly.
7.                  Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
8.                  Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.
 
VI. Breeding Care
 
1.                  Observe the animal closely and keep specific record of its coming in heat, duration of heat, insemination, conception and calving.
2.                  Breed the animals in time.
3.                  The onset of oestrus will be within 60 to 80 days after calving.
4.                  Timely breeding will help achieving conception within 2 to 3 months of calving.
5.                  Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).
6.                  Use high quality semen preferably frozen semen of proven sires/bulls.
 
VII. Care during Pregnancy
 
Give special attention to pregnant cows two months before calving by providing adequate space, feed, water etc.

VIII. Marketing of Milk

1.                  Marketing milk immediately after it is drawn keeping the time between production and marketing of the milk to the minimum.
2.                  Use clean utensils and handle milk in hygienic way.
3.                  Wash milk pails/cans/utensils thoroughly with detergent and finally rinse with chloride solution.
4.                  Avoid too much agitation of milk during transit.
5.                  Transport the milk during cool hours of the day.
 
IX. Care of Calves
 
1.                  Take care of new born calf.
2.                  Treat/disinfect the navel cord with tincutre of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
3.                  Feed colostrum to calf.
4.                  Assist the calf to suckle if it is too weak to suckle on its own within 30 minutes of calving.
5.                  In case it is desired to wean the calf immediately after birth, then feed the colostrum in bucket.
6.                  Keep the calf separately from birth till two months of age in a dry clean and well ventilated place.
7.                  Protect the calves against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.
8.                  Group the calves according to their size.
9.                  Vaccinate calves.
10.              Dehorn the calves around 4 to 5 days of age for easy management when they grow.
11.              Dispose of extra calves not to be reared/maintained for any specific purpose as early as possible, particularly the male calves.
12.              The female calves should be properly reared.
Annexure I
FORMAT FOR SUBMISSION OF SCHEMES
1. GENERAL

i) Name of the sponsoring bank
ii) Address of the controlling ofice sponsoring the scheme
iii) Nature and objectives of the proposed scheme
iv) Details of proposed investments
S.No
Investment
No. Of units



(a)


(b)


(c)


v) Specification of the scheme area (Name of District & Block/s)

S.No.
District
Block



vi) Names of the financing bank's branches:
S.No.
Name of the Branch/District


(a)

(b)

(c)

vii) Status of beneficiary/ies:
   
     (indidivual/Partnership/Company/Corporation/Co-operative Society / Others)
viii) In case of area based schemes, coverage of borrowers in weaker sections (landless labourers, small, medium & large farmers as per
         NABARD's norms, SC/ST, etc.)

ix) Details of borrowers profile (Not applicable to area based schemes)
(a) Capability
(b) Experience
(c) Financial Soundness
(d) Technical/Other special Qualificaitons
(e) Technical/Managerial Staff and adequacy thereof

2. TECHNICAL ASPECTS :

a) Location, Land and Land Development :
i) Location details of the project
ii) Total Area of land and its cost
iii) Site map
iv) Particulars of land development, fencing, gates, etc.

b) Civil Structures :
Detailed cost estimates along with measurements of vaious civil structure
- Sheds
- Store room
- Milk room
- Quarters, etc.

c) Equipment/Plant and Machinery :

i) Chaff cutter
ii) Silo pit
iii) Milking machine
iv) Feed grinder and mixer
v) Milking pails/milk cans
vi) Biogas plant
vii) Bulk coolers
viii)Equipment for manufacture of products
ix) Truck/van (price quotations for the above equipments)

d) Housing :

i) Type of housing
ii) Area requirement
- Adults
- Heifers (1-3 years)
- Calves (less than 1 year)

e) Animals :

i) Proposed species
ii) Proposed breed
iii) Source of purchase
iv) Place of purchase
v) Distance (kms.)
vi) Cost of animal (Rs.)

f) Production parameters :

i) Order of lactation
ii) Milk yield (ltrs. per day)
iii) Lactation days
iv) Dry days
v) Conception rate
vi) Mortality(%)
    - Adults
    - Young stock

g) Herd projection (with all assumptions) :

h) Feeding :

i) Source of fodder and feed - Green fodder
    - Dry fodder
    - Concentrates
ii) Fodder crop rotations
    - Kharif
    - Rabi
    - Summer
iii) Fodder cultivation expenses
iv) Requirement and costs :

Quantity required (kg./day)

Cost(Rs. / Kg)
Lactation
Dry Period
Young Stock
Green Fodder




Dry Fodder




Concentrates





i) Breeding Facilities :

i) Source :
ii) Location :
iii) Distance (km.) :
iv) Availability of semen :
v) Availability of staff :
vi) Expenditure per animal/year

j) Veterinary Aid :

i) Source
ii) Location
iii) Distance (km.)
iv) Availability of staff
v) Types of facilities available
vi) If own arrangements are made -
a) Employed a veterinary doctor/stockman/consultant
b) Periodicity of visit
c) Amount paid/visit (Rs.)
vii)Expenditure per animal per year (Rs.)

k) Electricity :

i) Source
ii) Approval from SEB
iii) Connected load
iv) Problems of power failure
v) Arrangements for generator

l) Water :

i) Source
ii) Quality of water
iii) Abvailability of sufficient quantity for drinking, cleaning nad fodder production
iv) If investment has to be made, type of strucutre, design and cost

m) Marketing of milk :

i) Source of sales
ii) Place of disposal
iii) Distance (km.)
iv) Price realised - (Rs. per liter of milk)
v) Basis of payment
vi) Periodicity of payment

n) Marketing of other products :

i) Animal - age
    - place of sale
    - price expected
ii) Manure - Qty./animal
    Price/unit (Rs.)
iii) Empty gunny bags
    - Number
    - Cost/bag (Rs.)

o) Beneficiary's experience :

p) Comments on technical feasibility :

q) Government restrictions, if any :

3. FINANCIAL ASPECTS :

i) Unit Cost :
Sr.No
Name of the Investment
Physical units and specification
Unit cost with component wise break-up (Rs.)
Whether approved by state level unit cost committee

Total




Ii) Down payment/margin/subsidy(Indicate source & extent of subsidy):

iii) Year-wise physical & financial programme :
Year
1
Invest-
Ment
2
Physical
Units
3
Unit
Cost
(Rs.)
4
Total
Outlay
(Rs.)
5
Margin/
Subsidy
(Rs.)
6
Bank loan
(Rs.)
7
Refinance
Assistance
(Rs.)
8
Total







Iv) Financial viability (comment on the cash flow projection on a farm model/unit
and enclose the same.)
Particulars :
a) Internal Rate of Return (IRR) :
b) Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) :
c) Net Present Worth (NPW) :
v) Financial position of the borrowers (to be furnished in case of corporate bodies/partnership firms)
a) Profitability Ratio :
i) GP Ratio
ii) NP Ratio
b) Debt Equity Ratio :
c) Whether Income Tax & other tax obligations are paid upto date :
d) Whether audit is upto date (enclose copies of audited financial statements for the last three years)
vi) Lending Terms :
i) Rate of Interest :
ii) Grace Period :
iii) Repayment Period :
iv) Nature of Security :
v) Availability of Government guarantee wherever necessary :

4. INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES :

a) Availability of technical staff with bank/implementing
authority for monitoring

b) Details of -
i) technical guidance
ii) training facilities
iii) Govt support/extention support
c) Tie-up arrangements with marketing agencies for loan recovery
d) Insurance -
- Type of policy
- Periodicity
- Rate of premium
e) Whether any subsidy is available, if so amount per unit
f) Arrangements for supply of green fodder and cattle feed
ANNEXURE II
Cattle and Buffalo Breeds Important Characteristics/Description
Sr.No.
Name Breed
Habitat/Main State
Breeding Tract Districts
Assembling Centres
Areas of demand
Remarks
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
A)
CATTLE
(INDIGENOUS)




1
Amrithmahal
Erstwhile Mysore State now part of Karnataka
Tumkur and Chitradurg
Erstwhile Mysore State
Karnataka and adjoining area
Draught breed
2
Dangi
Maharashtra and Gujarat
Ahmednagar, Khandesh, Raigad, Nasik, Thane, Surat
Weekly markets in Ahmednagar, Nasik, Thane and West Khandesh district
Rocky ghat areas with heavy rainfall
Draught breed
3
Denoi
Andhra Pradesh Karnataka and Maharashtra
Medak, Nizambad, Mahboobnagar, Adilabad Gulbarga, Bidar, Osmanabad, Nanded
Weekly cattle markets, Jatras and fairs in Bidar and adjoining districts
Bidar and adjoining districts
Draught purposse breed
4
Gir
Gir Hills and forest of South Kathiawar
Junagarh, Also maintained by NDRI, Bangalore
_
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra
Dairy purpose breed
5
Hallikar
Karnataka
Tumkur, Hassan & Mysore
Dodbalapur, Chickballapur, Harikar, Devargudda, Chikkuvalli, Karuvalli, Chittavadgi (T.N.) North Arcot (T.N.) Hindupur, Somaghatta, Anantpur (A.P.)
Dharwar, North Kanara, Bellary (KT) Anantur & Chittur (A.P.), Coimbatore North Arcot, Salem (T.M.)
Draught breed
6
Hariana
Haryana and Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan
Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal, Patiala, Sangrur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Alwar, Bharatpur Western districts
Cattle fairs at Jehazgarh, Mahim and Bhadurgarh (Rohtak dist.) Hansi & Bhiwani (Hissar dist.)
Throughout the country
Dual purpose breed
7
Kangayam
Tamil Nadu
Coimbatore
Avanashi, Tirppur, Kannauram, Madurai Athicombu
Southern Districts of Tamil Nadu
Draught breed
8
Kankrej
Gujarat
Ahmedabad, Banaskantha
Ahmedabad, Radhanpur
Rajasthan, Maharashtra

9
Khillari
Maharashtra
Solapur, Kolhapur, Satara
Southern Districts of Maharashtra and adjoining districts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

Draught breed
10
Krishna Valley
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Watersheds of Krishna and adjoining areas of A.P. and KT
Ichalkaranji (Kolhapur), Chincahli (Gulbarga)


11
Malvi
Madhya Pradesh
Guna, Vidisha, Raisen Sehora, Ujjain, Indore, Dewas, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Mandsaur, Jhabus & Dhar
Agar (Shajapur) Singaj (Nimar) Sehore & Ashta (Sehore)

Draught purpose


Rajasthan
Jhalwar and Kotah
Karimnagar (A.P.)


12
Nagori or Nagauri
Rajasthan
Jodhpur & Nagaur
Nagaur Parbatsar (Nagpur), Balotra (Barmer), Puskar (Ajmer), Hissar, Hansi (Haryana State)
Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Draught purpose
13
Ongole
Andhra Pradesh
Ongole, Guntur, Narasaraopet, Bapatla and Nellore
Available in Ongole tract of Andhra Pradesh
-
Dual Purpose
14
Rathi
Rajasthan
Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur
Alwar, Rewari (Gurgaon), Pushkar (Ajmer)
-
-
-
Dairy breed
15
Sahiwal
Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, M.P., W.B.
Sahiwal (erstwhile Montgomery)
Jullundar, Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Ferozepur (Punjab), NDRI, Karnal, Hissar, Anhora Durg (M.P), Lucknow, Meerut, Bihar, W.B.
-
Dairy breed
16
Red Sindhi
Pakisatan All parts of India
-
-
-
Dairy breed
17
Siri
Sikkim, Bhutan
Darjeeling Hill Tract
Darjeeling (Brought by dealers)
-
Dual purpose
18
Tharparkar
Pakisatn (sind)
Umarkot, Naukot, Dhoro Naro Chor
Balotra (Jodhpur), Puskar (Ajmer), Gujarat State
-
Dairy breed
B) CATTLE (EXOTIC)
1
Brown Swiss
Switzerland
-
India, Pakisatan & other Asian countries
-
Dairy breed
2
Holstein Friesian
Holland
Province of North Holland and West Friesland
Through out the country (crossbreds)
-
Dairy breed
3
Jersy
British Isles
Island of Jersey
Crossbreds available in all states/U.Ts
-
Dairy breed
B) BUFFALOES
1
Bhadawari
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
Bah Tehsil in Agra Adjoining areas of Gwalior
Local markets in Breeding areas (Agra, Kanpur, Etawah, Jalaun, Jhansi)
-
Dairy Breed
2
Jaffarabadi
Gujarat
Kathiawar and Honreli
Breeding areas of Saurashtra
-
Dairy breed
3
Mehsani
Gujarat
Mehsana, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha tract in Gujarat
Ahmedabad, Mehsana and other places of breeding
-
Dairy breed
4
Murrah
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab
Rohtak, Hissar, Karnal, Jind, Gurgaon, Western parts of Uttar Pradesh Nabha and Patiala
Rohtak, Bahadurgarh, Delhi, Jahanzgarh, Mahim, Hissar, Bhiwani, Hansi, Rewari, Ferozpur, Jirka, Nangloi, Narela
-
Dairy Breed
5
Nagpuri
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
Wardha, Nagpur Yeotmal, Adilabad, and adjoining parts
Vidarbha area of Maharashtra and Adilabad district of A.P.
-
Dual purpose breed
6
Nili Ravi
Punjab
Ferozepur (Montogomery Pakisatan)
Ferozpur District of Punjab
-
Dairy breed
7
Surti
Gujarat
Kheda, Vadodara
(Charottar tract)
Through out Gujarat
-
Dairy breed
ANNEXURE - III
Reproductive and Productive Parameters (Traits) in Indian Cattle and Buffaloes
Sr.No
Name of the breed
Age at first calving
(months)
Calving interval
(months)
Lactation yield
(kg.)
Lactation length
(days)
Dry period
(days)
Milk yield kg/day during lactat-
ion
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
i)
Cattle






a)
Indian breeds






1
Dangi
54
17
600
300
210
2.0
2
Deogir
48
15
1,500
300
150
5.0
3
Deoni
53
14
810
270
150
3.0
4
Gir
48
16
1,350
270
210
5.0
5
Gaolao
46
16
600
300
180
2.0
6
Hallikar
46
20
600
300
300
2.0
7
Hariana
58
13
1,200
240
150
5.0
8
Kangayam
44
16
600
240
240
2.5
9
Kankrej
48
17
1,800
360
150
5.0
10
Khilari
52
16
240
240
240
1.0
11
Ongole
40
19
630
210
360
3.0
12
Rathi
40
19
1,815
330
240
5.5
13
Red Sindhi
42
14
1,620
270
150
6.0
14
Sahiwal
40
14
1,620
270
150
6.0
15
Tharparkar
50
14
1,620
270
150
6.0
16
Umblachery
46
17
360
240
270
1.5
17
Non-descript
60
19
405
270
300
1.5
B) Crossbred Cattle (Bos indicus Fx Bostaurus M)
1
H x F
34
14
2,970
330
90
9.0
2
H x BS
29
15
2,805
330
120
8.5
3
H x J
33
13
2,850
300
90
9.5
4
G x J
25
13
2,640
330
60
8.0
5
G x F
25
13
2,160
270
120
8.0
6
RS x F
29
12
2,295
270
90
8.5
7
RS x RD
28
12
2,160
270
90
8.0
8
RS x J
29
12
1,500
300
90
5.0
9
R x J
32
12
2,700
300
60
9.0
10
T x F
33
13
2,550
300
90
8.5
11
S x F
33
14
2,400
300
120
8.0
C) Buffaloes
1
Bhadawari
50
15
1,080
270
180
4.0
2
Murrah
42
16
1,800
300
180
6.0
3
Nili-Ravi
54
16
1,950
300
180
6.5
4
Surti
44
16
1,765
330
150
5.5
5
Mehsani
50
14
1,620
270
150
6.0
6
Jaffarabadi
50
14
1,620
270
150
6.0
7
Pandharpuri
56
14
1,350
270
150
5.0
8
Marathwadi
50
14
1,015
270
150
3.5
9
Nagpuri
50
14
1,350
270
150
5.0
10
Dharwari
50
14
1,350
270
150
5.0
11
Non-descript
50
16
540
270
210
2.0
Key : H = Hariana S = Sahiwal RS = Red Sindhi
G = Gir T = Tharparkar L = Non-descript
R = Rathi F = Friesian BS = Brown Swiss
RD = Red dane J = Jersey
Annexure - IV
Unit cost of cows and buffaloes Approved
by NABARD in some of the major States in India

Sr.No
State


Cows



Buffaloes




Unit Cost (Rs.)
Breed
Yield
(litres/
day)

Unit cost (Rs.)
Breed
Yield (litres / day)
1
2

3
4
5

6
7
8
1
Andhra Pradesh

6,000
7500
9500
Crossbred
Crossbred
Crossbred
6
8
10

7,500
10000
-
Graded Murrah
Graded Murrah
6
8
-
2
Assam

10,000
Crossbred
7

8,500
Graded Murrah
7
3
Bihar

13,000
Crossbred
10

9,000
Graded Murrah
7-8



6,000
Indigenous
5-6

7,000
Local (improved)
5-6
4
Gujarat
i)
14,000
Jersey X
8-9
i)
13,500
Surti
5.5


ii)
16,000
H.F.X
9-10
ii)
13,000
Mehsani
6






iii)
14,000
Jaffarabadi
6
5
Karnataka
i)
7,300
Crossbred
6
i)
6,600
Graded Surti
5


ii)
9,700
Crossbred
8
ii)
7,800
Graded Murrah
6


iii)
10,900
Crossbred
9
iii)
9,000
Pandarpuri
7


iv)
12,100
Crossbred
10
iv)
11,000
Pure Mehsani
8
6
Madhya Pradesh
i)
9,500
Jersey X

i)
7,000
Graded Murrah
6


ii)
6,500
Gir/Tharparkr/Sahiwal
8
ii)
8,250
Graded Murrah
7





7
iii)
6,000
Nagpuri
5
7
Maharashtra
i)
11,200
Crossbred
6
i)
7,000
GMB/Mehsani
7


ii)
14,000
Crossbred
10
ii)
8,000
GMB/Mehsani
8


iii)
8,400
Tharparkar/ Gir/Hariana
6-7
iii)
6,000
Surti/
Jaffarbadi
6



to


iv)
7,000
Nagpuri/ Dharwari
7



9,500


v)
5,000
Pandharpuri
5






vi)
6,000

6
8
West Bengal
i)
9,500
Crossbred
6

-
-
-


ii)
12,000
Crossbred
8

-
-
-
9
Orissa
i)
6,000
Crossbred
6

6,300
Graded Murrah
6


ii)
7,000
-do-
7






iii)
8,000
-do-
8




10
Punjab/Haryana
i)
2,700
Indigenous
5






ii)
7,950
Crossbred(J)
9
i)
7,450
Murrah
7



8,900
-do-(HF)
10
ii)
6,500
Graded Murrah
6
11
Rajasthan
i)
10,400
-do-
8

11,200
Graded Murrah
7


ii)
11,700
-do-
9

9,000
Surti
6


iii)
13,000
-do-
10




12
Uttar Pradesh

10,000
Crossbred
10

11,000
Graded Murrah
8
13
Kerala

6,000
Crossbred
6

7,200
Graded Murrah
6-
6.5



8,000
Crossbred
8




14
Himachal

6,600
Crossbred
8

9,000
Graded Murrah
6
15
Tamil Nadu

8,250
Crossbred
6

9,800
Graded Murrah
6

Annexure V

Economics of two animal unit (buffaloes)

Project at a Glance

1
Unit Size
:
2 Animals
2
Breed
:
Graded Murrah
3
State
:
Karnataka
4
Unit Cost (Rs.)
:
18,223
5
Bank Loan (Rs.)
:
15,400
6
Margin Money (Rs.)
:
2,823
7
Repayment period
:
5
8
Interest rate (%)
:
12
9
BCR at 15% DF
:
1.50:1
10
NPW at 15% DF (Rs.)
:
29,187
11
IRR(%)
:
>50%
MODEL PROJECT FOR TWO ANIMAL UNIT(BUFFALOES)
A INVESTMENT COST
Sr.No.
Items
Specifications
Phy units
Unit Cost
(Rs. /Unit)
Total Cost
(Rs.)
1
Cost of animals

2
8,200
16,400
2
Insurance

2
689
1,378
3
Conc. Feed (4.5 kg/day/animal for 30 days)
135 Kg
1
3.3
446
4
Total cost



18,223
5
Margin money (15% of total cost)


Say Rs.
2,733
2723
6
Bank laon (85% of total cost)


Say Rs.
15490
15500
B TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETERS
i)
No.of milch animals
2
ii)
Cost of milch animals
8,200
iii)
Lactation period (days)
280
iv)
Dry period (days)
150
v)
Milk yield (lts./day)
7
vi)
Sale price of milk (Rs./lt)
7.75
vii)
Sale of manure/animal/year (Rs.)
300
viii)
Insurance premium for five years (%)
8.4
ix)
Veterinary aid/animal/year (Rs.)
150
x)
Labour (Rs.)
Family labour
xi)
Cost of electricity & water (Rs./animal)
100
xii)
Interest rate (%)
12
xiii
Repayment period (years)
5
xiv)
Income from sale of gunny bags
20 bags/tonne @ Rs. 5/bag
100
xv)
Feeding schedule


S.No.
Type of fodder/feed
Price (Rs./kg)
(Quantity in kg/day)
Lactation Dry
Period Period
a)
Green fodder
0.2
25 25
b)
Dry fodder
0.5
5 5
c)
Concentrate
3.3
4.5 1
xvi) Animals will be purchased in two
batches at an interval of 5 - 6 months

xvii) It is assumed that the expenditure on calf
rearing will nullify the sale value of calf / hiefer.


xviii) Closing stock value (Rs. per animal) 4100
C LACTATION CHART
Sr.No
Particulars


Years




I
II
III
IV
V
i)
Lactation Days





a)
First batch
250
280
250
210
210
b)
Second batch
180
210
210
210
210

Total
430
490
460
420
420







ii)
Dry Days





a)
First batch
110
80
110
150
150
b)
Second batch
-
150
150
150
150

Total
110
230
260
300
300
Annexure - V (Contd.)
D CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
Sr.No.
Particulars


Years





I
II
III
IV
V

I
Costs:






1
Capital cost*
17,777





2
Recurring cost






a)
Feeding during lactation period







Green fodder
2,150
2,450
2,300
2,100
2,100


Dry fodder
1,075
1,225
1,150
1,050
1,050


Concentrate
6,386
7,277
6,831
6,237
6,237


Total
9,611
10,952
10,281
9,387
9,387

b)
Feeding during dry period







Green fodder
550
1,150
1,300
1,500
1,500


Dry fodder
275
575
575
750
750


Concentrate
363
759
858
990
990


Total
1,188
2,484
2,733
3,240
3,240

c)
Veterinary aid & breeding cover
225
300
300
300
300

d)
Cost of electricity & water
150
200
200
200
200


Total
28,951
13,936
13,514
13,127
13,127

II
BENEFITS






a)
Sale of milk
23,328
26,583
24,955
22,785
22,785

b)
Sale of Gunny bags
205
232
218
200
200

c)
Sale of manure
450
600
600
600
600

d)
Closing stock value




8,200


Total
23,982
27,414
25,773
23,585
31,785

III
DF @15%
0.870
0.756
0.658
0.572
0.497

IV
DISCOUNTED COSTS AT 15%
25,175
10,537
8,886
7,505
6,526
58,630
V
DISCOUNTED BENEFITS AT 15%
20,854
20,729
16,946
13,485
15,803
87,817
VI
NPW @ 15%
29,187





VII
BCR @ 15%
1.50:1





VIII
DF @ 50%
0.667
0.444
0.296
0.198
0.132

IX
NET BENEFITS
-4,969
13,479
12,259
10,458
18,658

X
DISCOUNTED NET BENEFITS AT 50%
-3,313
5,990
3,632
2,066
2,457
10,833
XI
IRR
>50%













* excluding the capitalised expenditure on concentrated feed
E REPAYMENT SCHEDULE
Bank Loan (Rs) - 15500
Interest Rate (%) - 12
Capital recovery factor - 0.277
Year
Income
Expenses
Gross surplus
Equated annual instalment
Net surplus
I
23,982
10,728
13,254
4,294
8,961
II
27,414
13,936
13,479
4,294
9,185
III
25,773
13,514
12,259
4,294
7,966
IV
23,585
13,127
10,458
4,294
6,165
V
23,585
13,127
10,458
4,294
6,165
Annexure VI
Economics of a mini DAIRY unit
TEN ANIMAL UNIT ( BUFFALOES)

PROJECT AT A GLANCE
1
Unit size
:
10 animals
2
Breed
:
Graded Murrah
3
State
:
Karnataka
4
Unit cost (Rs)
:
155,030
5
Bank loan (Rs)
:
131,700
6
Margin money (Rs)
:
23,330
7
Repayment period (yrs)
:
5
8
Interest rate (%)
:
13.5
9
BCR at 15% DF
:
1.53:1
10
NPW at 15% DF(Rs)
:
154,403
11
IRR (%)
:
>50
MODEL PROJECT FOR TEN ANIMAL UNIT (BUFFALOES)
A INVESTMENT COST
S.No.
Items
Specifications
Phy.units
Unit Cost (Rs./unit)
Total Cost (Rs.)
1
Cost of animals

10
8,200
8,200
2
Transportation cost of animals

10
300
3,000
3
Cost of construction of shed
Sq.ft.
650
55
35,750
4
Cost of Store cum office
Sq.ft.
200
100
20,000
5
Equipments (chaff cutter, milking pails, cans, technicians

10
500
5,000
6
Insurance

10
328
3,280
7
Fodder raising expenses @ Rs.3000/acre

2
3,000
6,000
8
Total cost



155,030
9
Margin money
(15% of total cost)


Say
23255
23330
10
Bank loan (85% of total cost)


Say
131776
131700

ANNEXURE VI (contd)
B TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETERS
 
i
Animals will be purchased in two batches at an interval of 5-6 months

ii
Second/Third lactation animals within 30 days of calving will be purchased in first year

iii
No. of acres of irrigated land for fodder production considered in the project. Green fodder will be produced on the farm. Fodder production expenses is considered in the cash flow analysis. During first year only two seasons are considered.
2
iv
In the first year the fodder production expenses are capitalised for one season (Rs. per acre per season) and manure is utilised for fodder production
3,000
v
It is assumed that the expenditure on calf rearing will nullify the income realised from its sale. However, the heifer will be retained on the farm and the old animals will be sold out.

vi
No. of milch animals
10
vii
Cost of milch animals
8,200
viii
Transportation cost (Rs. per milch animal including followers)
300
ix
Civil structures:


a) Shed (sft. per milch animal)
b) Store and office (sft)
65
200
x
Cost of construction
a) Shed (Rs. per sft)
b) Store and office
55
100
xi
Cost of equipment (Rs per milch animals)
500
xii
Lactation period (days)
280
xiii
Dry period (days)
150
xiv
Milk yield (lts/day)
7
xv
Sale price of milk (Rs/lt)
7.75
xvi
Income from sale of gunny bags (20 bags/tonne @ Rs.5/bag)
100
xvii
Expenditure on dry fodder for dry and lactation period requirement (kg/day)
Cost (Rs/kg)
5
0.5
xviii
Expenditure on concentrates
a) Requirement (kg/day)
Lactation period
Dry period
b) Cost (Rs/kg)
4.5
1
3.3
xix
Veterinary aid/animal/year (Rs)
150
xx
Labour (Rs./month)
900
xxi
Insurance premium (%)
4
xxii
Cost of electricity, water & other overheads (Rs/animal)
200
xxiii
Depreciation(%)
a) Sheds
b) Equipment
5
10
xxiv
Value of closing stock
4,100
xxv
Interest rate(%)
13.5
xxvi
Repayment period (years)
5
ANNEXURE VI (Contd.)
C. Lactation Chart
S.No
Particulars

I
II
Years
III
IV
V
I
Lactation Days






a)
First batch

1,250
1,400
1,250
1,050
1,050
b)
Second batch

900
1,050
1,050
1,050
1,050


Total
2,150
2,450
2,300
2,100
2,100
II
Dry days






a)
First batch

550
400
550
750
750

Second batch

-
750
750
750
750


Total
550
1,150
1,300
1,500
1,500
D CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
Sr.No
Particulars
I
II
Year
III
IV
IV

I
Costs






1
Capital cost*
145,750





2
Recurring cost






a)
Green fodder raising expenses
12,000
18,000
18,000
18,000
18,000

b)
Feeding during lactation period







Dry fodder
5,375
6,125
5,750
5,250
5,250


Concentrate
31,928
36,383
34,155
31,185
31,185


Total
37,303
42,508
39,905
36,435
36,435

c)
Feeding during dry period







Dry Fodder
1,375
2,875
3,250
3,750
3,750


Concentrate
1,815
3,795
4,290
4,950
4,950


Total
3,190
6,670
7,540
8,700
8,700

d)
Veterinary aid & breeding cover
1,125
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500

e)
Cost of electricity & water
1,500
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,000

f)
Insurance
3,280
3,280
3,280
3,280
3,280

g)
Labour cost
10,800
10,800
10,800
10,800
10,800


Total
188,868
52,678
50,945
49,503
48,635

II
BENEFITS






a)
Sale of milk
116,637
132,912
124,775
113,925
113,925

b)
Sale of Gunny bags
1,023
1,218
1,165
1,095
1,095

c)
Depreciated value of sheds
-



26,813

d)
Depreciated value of equipments




2,500

e)
Closing stock value




41,000


Total
117,660
134,130
125,940
115,020
185,333

III
DF @ 15%
0.87
0.76
0.66
0.57
0.50

IV
DISCOUNTED COSTS AT 15%
164,233
39,832
33,497
28,303
24,180
290,045
V
DISCOUNTED BENEFITS AT 15%
102,313
101,422
82,808
65,763
92,143
444,448
VI
NPW @ 15%
154,403





VII
BCR @ 15%
1.53:1





VIII
DF @ 50%
0.667
0.444
0.296
0.198
0.132

IX
NET BENEFITS
-71,208
81,453
74,995
65,518
136,698

X
DISCOUNTED NET BENEFITS AT 50%
47,472
36,201
22,221
12,942
18,001
41,893
XI
IRR
>50





* excludes the capitalised cost for fodder raising for three months and insurance for one year
E REPAYMENT SCHEDULE:
Bank Loan (Rs) - 131700
Interest rate(%) - 13.5
Capital recovery factor - 0.287
(in Rs.)
Year
Income
Expenses
Gross surplus
Equated annual installment
Net surplus
I
117,660
33,838
83,823
37,798
46,025
II
134,130
52,678
81,453
37,798
43,655
III
125,940
50,945
74,995
37,798
47,197
IV
115,020
49,503
65,518
37,798
27,720
V
115,020
48,635
66,385
37,798
28,587
Annexure - VII
Housing Space Requirements for Crossbred cattle
Age-group
Manger Space (mtr.)
Standing or covered area (sq.mtr.)
Open Space(sq.mtr.)
4-6 months
0.2-0.3
0.8-1.0
3.0-4.0
6-12 months
0.3-0.4
1.2-1.6
5.0-6.0
1-2 years
0.4-0.5
1.6-1.8
6.0-8.0
Cows
0.8-1.0
1.8-2.0
11.0-12.0
Pregnant cows
1.0-1.2
8.5-10.0
15.0-20.0
Bulls*
1.0-1.2
9.0-11.0
20.0-22.0
*To be housed individually
Annexure - VIII
Feeding Schedules for Dairy Animals
(Quantity in Kgs.)
S.No.
Type of animal
Feeding during
Green Fodder
Dry Fodder
Concentrate
1
2
3
4
5
6
(A)
CROSSBRED COW




a)
6 to 7 litres milk per day
Lactation days
Dry days
20 to 25
15 to 20
5 to 6
6 to 7
3.0 to 3.5
0.5 to 1.0
b)
8 to 10 litres milk per day
Lactation days
Dry days
25 to 30
20 to 25
4 to 5
6 to 7
4.0 to 4.5
0.5 to 1.0
(B)
BUFFALOES




a)
Murrah (7 to 8 litres milk per day)
Lactation days
Dry days
25 to 30
20 to 25
4 to 5
5 to 6
3.5 to 4.0
0.5 to 1.0
b)
Mehasana (6 to 7 litres milk per day)
Lactation days Dry days
15 to 20
10 to 15
4 to 5
5 to 6
3.0 to 3.5
0.5 to 1.0
c)
Surti (5 to 6 litrs milk per day)
Lactation days
Dry days
10 to 15
5 to 10
4 to 5
5 to 6
2.5 to 3.0
0.5 to 1.0
Annexure - IX
Programme for vaccination of farm animals against contagious diseases
Sr.
No.
Name of disease
Type of vaccine
Type of vaccination
Duration of immunity
Remarks
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
Anthrax (Gorhi)
Spore vaccine
Once in an year premonsoon vaccination
One season
-
2
Black Quarter (Sujab)
Killed vaccine
- do -
- do -
-
3
Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (Galghotu)
Ocladjuvant vaccine
- do -
- do -
-
4
Brucellosis (Contagious abortion)
Cotton strain 19 (live bacteria)
At about 6 months of age
3 or 4 calvings
To be done only in infected herds
5
Foot and Mouth disease (Muhkhar)
Polyvalent tissue culture vaccine
At about 6 months of age with booster dose 4 months later
One season
After vaccination repeat vaccination every year in Oct./Nov.
6
Rinderpest (Mata)
Lapinised avianised vaccine for exotic and crossbred catte, caprinised vaccine for zebu cattle.
At about 6 months of age
Life long
It is better to repeat after 3 to 4 years


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